Literary freedom is taken for granted in democracies, but forces that threaten or undermine it are always at work.
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Below is today’s Vocabulary for The Hindu Editorial (Removing fear: on literary freedom) – Jan 07, 2019.
Read This Article: – (Removing fear: on literary freedom)
Today’s Vocabulary for The Hindu Editorial (Removing fear: on literary freedom) – Jan 07, 2019
- Take for granted (phrase) –
Meaning – assume, believe, understand/conjecture.
- Undermine (verb) – कमजोर
Meaning – Lessen the effectiveness, power, or ability of, especially gradually or insidiously.
Synonyms – weaken, compromise, subvert.
Sentence – This could undermine years of hard work.
- At work (phrase)
Meaning – in action.
- Afresh (adverb) – नए सिरे से
Meaning – In a new or different way.
Synonyms – anew, over again, once more.
Sentence – She left the job to start afresh.
- Pulp (verb)
Meaning – Withdraw the publication of a book (and reuse the paper).
Sentence – The publisher had the right to pulp all unsold copies.
- Sanitise (verb) – स्वच्छ
Meaning – Make clean and hygienic
Synonyms – make presentable/acceptable, clean up.
Sentence – New chemicals for sanitising a pool.
- Resurrect (verb) – पुनर्निर्माण करें
Meaning – Restore (a dead person) to life.
Synonyms – revive, restore, relaunch.
Sentence – They are sleeping, but they shall wake up, they shall be resurrected.
- Harmony (noun) – सामंजस्य
Meaning – The state of being in agreement or concord.
Synonyms – agreement/accord, cooperation, friendship.
Sentence – Man and machine in perfect harmony.
- Invoke (verb) – आह्वान
Meaning – Cite or appeal to (someone or something) as an authority for an action or in support of an argument.
Synonyms – cite, refer to, adduce.
Sentence – Two other arguments are invoked in support of the rule.
- Espouse (verb) – सहायता देना
Meaning – Adopt or support (a cause, belief, or way of life)
Synonyms – adopt, embrace; support/endorse (a cause).
Sentence – She espoused the causes of justice and freedom for all.
- Punitive (adjective) – दंडात्मक
Meaning – Inflicting or intended as punishment.
Synonyms – disciplinary, corrective, correctional.
Sentence – He called for punitive measures against the Eastern bloc.
- Commend (verb) – सौंपना
Meaning – Praise formally or officially.
Synonyms – recommend, suggest, put forward.
Sentence – I commend the Government and the officials responsible.
- Uphold (verb) – कायम रखना
Meaning – Maintain (a custom or practice)
Synonyms – preserve, protect, validate/justify.
Sentence – We shall continue to uphold the noble tradition upon which our church has been built.
- Blasphemy (noun) – ईश्वर-निंदा
Meaning – The action or offence of speaking sacrilegiously about God or sacred things; profane talk.
Synonyms – profanity, irreligiousness, ungodliness/unholiness.
Sentence – He was detained on charges of blasphemy.
- Deliberate (adjective) – जानबूझकर
Meaning – Done consciously and intentionally.
Synonyms – intentional, considered, predetermined.
Sentence – A deliberate attempt to provoke conflict.
- Malicious (adjective) – दुर्भावनापूर्ण
Meaning – intending or intended to do harm.
Synonyms – harmful, disrespectful, vulgar.
Sentence – He was found guilty of malicious damage.
- Outrage (verb) – उल्लंघन
Meaning – Arouse fierce anger, shock, or indignation in (someone)
Synonyms – enrage, offend, anger.
Sentence – The public were outraged at the brutality involved.
- Grossly (adverb) – निहायत, परिपूर्णता से
Meaning – In a very obvious and unacceptable manner.
Synonyms – flagrantly, obviously; extremely/excessively.
Sentence – You have grossly insulted a member of the community.
- Trivial (adjective) – तुच्छ
Meaning – Of little value or importance.
Synonyms – unimportant, insignificant, inconsequential/minor.
Sentence – Huge fines were imposed for trivial offences.
- Hound (verb) – घृणित व्यक्ति
Meaning – A person eagerly seeking something.
Synonyms – harass, pressurize, pursue (continuously & harshly).
Sentence – He has a reputation as a publicity hound.
- Curtail (verb) – घटाना
Meaning – Reduce in extent or quantity; impose a restriction on.
Synonyms – lessen, reduce, decrease.
Sentence – Civil liberties were further curtailed.
- Scrap (verb) – रद्दी माल
Meaning – Abolish or cancel (a plan, policy, or law)
Synonyms – abandon, cancel, abolish.
Sentence – He supports the idea that road tax should be scrapped.
- Obscene (adjective) – गंदा, अश्लील
Meaning – (of the portrayal or description of sexual matters) offensive or disgusting by accepted standards of morality and decency.
Synonyms – disgusting, morally disturbing or upsetting.
Sentence – The content should more realistically be described as obscene language.
- Enmity (noun) – शत्रुता
Meaning – A state or feeling of active opposition or hostility.
Synonyms – discord, opposition, quarrelling.
Sentence – There had been a few attempts to sedate enmity in advance.
- Grounds (noun) – आधार
Meaning – Factors forming a basis for action or the justification for a belief.
Synonyms – reason/factor, cause, basis.
Sentence – There are some grounds for optimism.
- Criminalise (verb) – अपराध
Meaning – Turn (an activity) into a criminal offence by making it illegal.
Synonyms – make something (an activity) illegal.
Sentence – The government’s anti-union laws have criminalised essential union activity.
- Imputation (noun) – इलज़ाम
Meaning – Represent (something, especially something undesirable) as being done or possessed by someone;
Synonyms – insinuation, attribution, allegation.
Sentence – Crucial facts are elided and fictitious positions are imputed to his opponents.
- Prejudicial (adjective) – हानिकारक
Meaning – Harmful to someone or something; detrimental.
Synonyms – detrimental, damaging, injurious.
Sentence – They had infiltrated a military airfield, and this was regarded as prejudicial to the state’s interests.
- Draw one’s attention (phrase)
Meaning – to make someone notice something.
- Proscribe (verb) – देश से निकालना, बहिष्कार करना
Meaning – especially by law.
Synonyms – forbid, prohibit, ban.
Sentence – Strikes remained proscribed in the armed forces.
- Onus (noun) – भार, कर्तव्य
Meaning – Something that is one’s duty or responsibility.
Synonyms – responsibility, duty, burden.
Sentence – However, the onus is on their director to see the broader picture once in a while.
- Provision (noun) – प्रावधान
Meaning – the action of providing or supplying something for use.
Synonyms – term, clause, requirement/condition.
Sentence – New contracts for the provision of services.
- Obscenity (noun) – बेहूदापन
Meaning – The state or quality of being obscene.
Synonyms – indecency, immorality, impropriety.
Sentence – The book was banned for obscenity.
- Pornography (noun) –
Meaning – obscene or indecent digital material (movies, pictures, magazines, etc.,) that show or describe sexual matters in order to cause sexual excitement.
Sentence – There’s always a tricky issue when you get into stolen material or pornography.
- See the light (phrase)
Meaning – understand, realize, find out.
- Dilute (verb) – पतला, तनुकरण
Meaning – Make (something) weaker in force, content, or value by modification or the addition of other elements.
Synonyms – lessen, diminish, reduce.
Sentence – The reforms have been diluted.
- Inhibit (verb) – रोकना
Meaning – Hinder, restrain, or prevent (an action or process)
Synonyms – impede, hinder, prevent, hamper, hold back, discourage, interfere with.
Sentence – It does inhibit the rusting process, at least for six months or so.
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