Air pollution is choking several cities in the northern States once again, as changes in temperature and slowing winds trap soot, dust and fine particulate matter.
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Below is today’s Vocabulary for The Hindu Editorial (Choked by smog: on air pollution) – Nov 02, 2018.
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Today’s Vocabulary for The Hindu Editorial (Choked by smog) – Nov 02, 2018
- Choke (verb) – दम घोंटना
Meaning – (of a person or animal) have severe difficulty in breathing because of a constricted or obstructed throat or a lack of air.
Synonyms – suffocate, stifle, gag, struggle for air, fight for breath.
Sentence – I could hardly breathe, and every breath was choking me
- Smog (noun) – धुंध
Meaning – Fog or haze intensified by smoke or other atmospheric pollutants.
Synonyms – exhaust fumes, fumes, smoke, pollution, gas.
Sentence – The infamous Delhi smog is an example of extreme air pollution.
- Corrective (noun) – सुधारात्मक
Meaning – A thing intended to correct or counteract something else
Synonyms – remedy, curative, restorative, medication.
Sentence – The necessary correctives, after all, would have to be brutal.
- Lethal (adjective) – जानलेवा, घातक
Meaning – Sufficient to cause death.
Synonyms – deadly, fatal, killing.
Sentence – The Krakatoa eruption was the most lethal on record.
- Soot (noun) – कालिख
Meaning – A deep black powdery or flaky substance consisting largely of amorphous carbon, produced by the incomplete burning of organic matter.
Sentence – We were constantly faced with black soot falling on the grass, on our houses.
- Residue (noun) – अवशेष
Meaning – A small amount of something that remains after the main part has gone or been taken or used.
Synonyms – remains, part leftovers, remnants.
Sentence – Even when canned vegetables are rinsed small amounts of the residue remain.
- Pollutant (noun) – प्रदूषक
Meaning – A substance that pollutes something, especially water or the atmosphere.
Synonyms – contamination, impurity, adulterant.
Sentence – Exactly how air pollutants increase the risk of death is not well known.
- Aggravate (verb) – छेड़ना, बिगाड़ना
Meaning – Make (a problem, injury, or offence) worse or more serious.
Synonyms – worsen, make worse, exacerbate, compound.
Sentence – Military action would only aggravate the situation.
- Prevail (verb) – प्रबल, प्रचलित होना, जीतना
Meaning – Prove more powerful or superior.
Synonyms – exist, be present, occur.
Sentence – It is hard for logic to prevail over emotion.
- Decisive (adjective) – निर्णयात्मक
Meaning – Settling an issue; producing a definite result.
Synonyms – resolute, firm, determined.
Sentence – That goal proved crucial as it was the only decisive result between the top four teams.
- Sustainable (adjective) – सतत, धारणीय
Meaning – Able to be maintained at a certain rate or level.
Synonyms – acceptable, valid, reliable, dependable.
Sentence – Sustainable economic growth
- Inflict (verb) – थोपना, दण्ड देना
Meaning – Cause (something unpleasant or painful) to be suffered by someone or something.
Synonyms – impose, force, exact, administer to, deliver to.
Sentence – She is wrong to inflict her beliefs on everyone else.
- Degradation (noun) – घटाना, गिरावट, पतन
Meaning – The condition or process of degrading or being degraded.
Synonyms – humiliation, shame, deterioration, degeneration, decay,
Sentence – We all want to see recycling and an end to environmental degradation.
- Mortality (noun) – मृत्यु-दर
Meaning – (in a particular time/for a cause) the rate of death.
Synonyms – temporality, impermanence, ephemerality.
Sentence – It certainly brings up mortality and how we’ll feel when faced with death.
- Trauma (noun) – अभिघात, ज़ख़म, क्षति
Meaning – A deeply distressing or disturbing experience.
Synonyms – torment, distress, suffering.
Sentence – This evolutionary process has not been without its traumas.
- Stubble (noun) – खूंटी
Meaning – The cut stalks of cereal plants left sticking out of the ground after the grain is harvested.
Synonyms – dried stalks, straw (of a grain like wheat, rice & etc)
Sentence – After harvesting the stubble would be set on fire which also killed new mallee shoots.’
- Footprint (noun) – पदचिह्न, निशान
Meaning – The impression left by a foot or shoe on the ground or a surface.
Synonyms – footmark, footstep, track, print, mark, spoor, trace, impression.
Sentence – This will reduce the utility’s carbon footprint.
- Perspective (noun) – परिप्रेक्ष्य, स्वरूप
Meaning – The art of representing three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional surface so as to give the right impression of their height, width, depth, and position in relation to each other.
Synonyms – view, outlook, prospect, aspect.
Sentence – He also began studying female form and perspective in his art.
- Reorient (verb) – पुनः अनुकूल
Meaning – Change the focus or direction of.
Sentence –The country began reorienting its economic and social policies in 1988.
- Portfolio (noun) – निवेश सूची, संविभाग
Meaning – A range of investments held by a person or organization.
Synonyms – investments, shares, equities.
Sentence –A portfolio of insured municipal securities
- Escalate (verb) – गहरा बनाना, तीव्र करना,
Meaning – Increase rapidly.
Synonyms – increase rapidly, soar, increase.
Sentence –The price of tickets escalated
- Deterrent (adjective) – निवारक, रक्षा का
Meaning – A thing that discourages or is intended to discourage someone from doing something.
Synonyms – disincentive, discouragement, damper.
Sentence –Cameras are a major deterrent to crime.
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